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Kennedy in June 1963, but opposed by filibuster in the Senate. Johnson pushed the bill forward, which in its final form was passed in the U. Congress by a Senate vote of 73-27 and House vote of 289-126 (70%-30%).The Act was signed into law by President Johnson on July 2, 1964, at the White House.On June 19, the president sent his bill to Congress as it was originally written, saying legislative action was "imperative".
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By the time of the 1963 winter recess, 50 signatures were still needed.
After the return of Congress from its winter recess, however, it was apparent that public opinion in the North favored the bill and that the petition would acquire the necessary signatures. and Malcolm X at the United States Capitol on March 26, 1964.
Kennedy was moved to action following the elevated racial tensions and wave of black riots in the spring 1963.
Emulating the Civil Rights Act of 1875, Kennedy's civil rights bill included provisions to ban discrimination in public accommodations, and to enable the U. Attorney General to join in lawsuits against state governments which operated segregated school systems, among other provisions.
Kennedy called the congressional leaders to the White House in late October, 1963 to line up the necessary votes in the House for passage.
The bill was reported out of the Judiciary Committee in November 1963, and referred to the Rules Committee, whose chairman, Howard W.This is the worst civil-rights package ever presented to the Congress and is reminiscent of the Reconstruction proposals and actions of the radical Republican Congress." After 54 days of filibuster, Senators Hubert Humphrey (D-MN), Mike Mansfield (D-MT), Everett Dirksen (R-IL), and Thomas Kuchel (R-CA), introduced a substitute bill that they hoped would attract enough Republican swing votes in addition to the core liberal Democrats behind the legislation to end the filibuster.The compromise bill was weaker than the House version in regard to government power to regulate the conduct of private business, but it was not so weak as to cause the House to reconsider the legislation.However, it did not include a number of provisions deemed essential by civil rights leaders including protection against police brutality, ending discrimination in private employment, or granting the Justice Department power to initiate desegregation or job discrimination lawsuits.On June 11, 1963, President Kennedy met with the Republican leaders to discuss the legislation before his television address to the nation that evening.in which he asked for legislation "giving all Americans the right to be served in facilities which are open to the public—hotels, restaurants, theaters, retail stores, and similar establishments", as well as "greater protection for the right to vote".