& O.) made Baltimore a major shipping and manufacturing center by linking the city with major markets in the Midwest.By 1820 its population had reached 60,000, and its economy had shifted from its base in tobacco plantations to sawmilling, shipbuilding, and textile production.

The city remained a part of surrounding Baltimore County and continued to serve as its county seat from 1768–1851, after which it became an independent city.

The Battle of Baltimore against the British in 1814 inspired the composition of the USA's national anthem, "The Star-Spangled Banner," and the construction of the Battle Monument which became the city's official emblem.

The Town of Baltimore, on the west side of the Jones Falls, was founded and laid out on July 30, 1729; with Jonestown and Fells Point preexisting to the east.

The three settlements, covering 60 acres, became a commercial hub and in 1768 became the county seat.

A total of 11,000 Maryland National Guard and federal troops were ordered into the city.

Following the death of Freddie Gray in April 2015, the city experienced major protests and international media attention, as well as a clash between local youth and police which resulted in a state of emergency declaration and curfew.

The Baltimore riot of 1968, coinciding with riots in other cities, followed the assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr. Public order was not restored until April 12, 1968.

The Baltimore riot cost the city an estimated million (US$ 70 million in 2018).

These industries benefited from war but successfully shifted into infrastructure development during peacetime.

Soon after the city created the world's first dental college, the Baltimore College of Dental Surgery, in 1840, and shared in the world's first telegraph line, between Baltimore and Washington DC in 1844.

A distinctive local culture started to take shape, and a unique skyline peppered with churches and monuments developed.