The oldest uncontested fossils on earth are 2 billion year-old stromatolites in Minnesota, Wisconsin, and Ontario.

Composed of layers of sediments laid down by colonies of cyanobacteria, stromatolites still exist, but are quite rare today.

Within three weeks, there will be nothing left but a few small bones." A fossil normally preserves only a portion of an organism, usually that portion that was partially mineralized during life, such as bones and teeth.

or radiocarbon dating-5or radiocarbon dating-15

Radiocarbon dates come from organic matter that contain the element carbon.

Ice cores, pollen, wood, hair, bone, shell, bird egg shell, and coral are some of the things datable by this technology which depends on measuring the atomic decay rate of carbon isotopes.

Scientist Olivia Judson provides this good example of what happens to an adult male gorilla in the tropical rainforests of the Congo; "An adult male gorilla— all 330 pounds of him—will be reduced to a pile of bones and hair within 10 days of his death.

What scavengers like vultures and hyenas leave behind, flies, ants, worms, and bacteria quickly consume.

This date marks the end of the Cenozoic Era and the Pleistocene Period on the geologic time scale.

Paleontologists consider materials younger than 10,000 years ago “recent”.Scientists are still finding a few new sites where they live today but they were quite abundant on earth some 2 billion years ago, and perhaps earlier.Geologists credit stromatolite activity for creating the earth's first atmospheric oxygen and making animal life possible.Those not included are Vernon Miller, Don Devan and Bill Mottern.I thought a good way to start this 40th anniversary year would be to re-release the video and share it with our current viewers.As you scroll down through the page, you can review the items that were added this year in chronological order.