The subsequent reprisals by local militia soon caused an escalation of violence, wherein it is estimated that approximately 300 Mexicans and Mexican-Americans lost their lives.

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El Paso stands on the Rio Grande river across the Mexico–United States border from Ciudad Juárez, the most populous city in the Mexican state of Chihuahua.

El Paso has a strong federal and military presence.

El Paso remained the largest settlement in New Mexico until its cession to the U. in 1848, when the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo specified the border was to run north of El Paso De Norte, then what is now the area around the Ciudad Juárez Cathedral, it became part of the state of Chihuahua.

El Paso County was established in March 1850, with San Elizario as the first county seat.

El Paso del Norte (present-day Ciudad Juárez) was founded on the south bank of the Río Bravo del Norte (Rio Grande), in 1659 by Fray Garcia de San Francisco.

In 1680, the small village of El Paso became the temporary base for Spanish governance of the territory of New Mexico as a result of the Pueblo Revolt, until 1692 when Santa Fe was reconquered and once again became the capital.

However, the villages which consisted of what is now El Paso and the surrounding area remained essentially a self-governed community with both representatives of the Mexican and Texan government negotiating for control until Texas irrevocably took control in 1846.

During this interregnum, 1836–1848, Americans nonetheless continued to settle the region.

Given the reclamations of the Texas Republic that wanted a chunk of the Santa Fe trade, the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo effectively made the settlements on the north bank of the river a formal American settlement, separate from Old El Paso del Norte on the Mexican side.