Green denoted hope for renewal, red stood for the ancestors' courage, and yellow symbolized the country's treasures.

In 1975, the flag was changed to green with a red star in the corner.

Colonial rule forced the people to accept a new system of central administration, heavy taxation, forced labor, and harsh laws.

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Merchants and travelers wrote about the power of the Dahomean monarch, his army of "amazons" (female warriors), and ceremonies that included human sacrifice.

The French presence and influence increased after 1840 as a result of commercial and missionary activity.

In 1990, the original flag was reestablished to symbolize the rejection of Marxist ideology. Although several ethnic groups are assumed to be indigenous, migration that began four hundred years ago brought Aja-speaking peoples (the Gbe) into the southern part of the country, where they founded several kingdoms.

The Yoruba presence in the southern and central regions also dates back several hundred years.

Before 1975, the Republic of Benin was known as Dahomey, its French colonial name.

Three years after the coup that brought Major Kérékou to power, the name was changed to the People's Republic of Benin, reflecting the Marxist-Leninist ideology of the new government.

By 1900, the Bariba had been defeated and the new boundaries had been determined.

From 1904 to 1958, Dahomey was a colony in the federation of French West Africa.

After the collapse of the Kérékou government in 1989, the name was shortened to the Republic of Benin.

In the precolonial period, Dahomey was the name of the most powerful kingdom on the Slave Coast, which extended along the Bight of Benin to Lagos.

In addition to language and ethnicity, there are divisions along lines of occupation and religion. The country has an area of 43,483 square miles (112,622 square kilometers).