The Multan region has been continuously inhabited for at least 5,000 years.The region is home to numerous archaeological sites dating to the era of the Early Harappan period of the Indus Valley Civilisation, Multan is believed to have been the Malli capital that was conquered by Alexander the Great in 326 BCE as part of the Mallian Campaign.even in times when the Mughals were in control of the even more coveted city of Kandahar, given the unstable political situation resulting from frequent contestation of Kandadar with the Persian Safavid Empire.

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Despite invasion, Multan remained northwest India's premier commercial centre throughout most of the 18th century. After repeated invasions following the collapse of the Mughal Empire, Multan was reduced from being one of the world's most important early-modern commercial centres, to a regional trading town.

In 1817, Ranjit Singh sent a body of troops to Multan under the command of Diwan Bhiwani Das to receive from Nawab Muzaffar Khan the tribute he owed to the Sikh Darbar.

In the 1320s Multan was conquered by Ghiyath al-Din Tughluq, founder of the Turkic Tughluq dynasty, the third dynasty of the Delhi Sultanate.

The countryside around Multan was recorded to have been devastated by excessively high taxes imposed during the reign of Ghiyath's son, Muhammad Tughluq.

Multan's urban typology is similar to other ancient cities in South Asia, such as Peshawar, Lahore, and Delhi - all of which were founded near a major river, and included an old walled city, as well as a royal citadel.

Multan is located in Punjab, and covers an area of 133 square kilometres (51 sq mi).

Arabic and Sindhi were spoken in both cities, By the mid 10th century, Multan had come under the influence of the Qarmatian Ismailis.

The Qarmatians had been expelled from Egypt and Iraq following their defeat at the hands of the Abbasids there.

Multan features an arid climate (Köppen climate classification BWh) with very hot summers and mild winters.

The average annual precipitations 186 millimetres (7.3 in).

The British conquest of the Sikh Empire was completed in February 1849, after the British victory at the Battle of Gujrat.