When using all user tweets, they reached an accuracy of 88.0%.

In this case, the Twitter profiles of the authors are available, but these consist of freeform text rather than fixed information fields.

And, obviously, it is unknown to which degree the information that is present is true.

Then we describe our experimental data and the evaluation method (Section 3), after which we proceed to describe the various author profiling strategies that we investigated (Section 4). Gender Recognition Gender recognition is a subtask in the general field of authorship recognition and profiling, which has reached maturity in the last decades(for an overview, see e.g. Even so, there are circumstances where outright recognition is not an option, but where one must be content with profiling, i.e.

Then follow the results (Section 5), and Section 6 concludes the paper. For whom we already know that they are an individual person rather than, say, a husband and wife couple or a board of editors for an official Twitterfeed. the identification of author traits like gender, age and geographical background.

2004), with and without preprocessing the input vectors with Principal Component Analysis (PCA; (Pearson 1901); (Hotelling 1933)).

We also varied the recognition features provided to the techniques, using both character and token n-grams.

2009) managed to increase the gender recognition quality to 89.2%, using sentence length, 35 non-dictionary words, and 52 slang words.

The authors do not report the set of slang words, but the non-dictionary words appear to be more related to style than to content, showing that purely linguistic behaviour can contribute information for gender recognition as well.

For gender, the system checks the profile for about 150 common male and 150 common female first names, as well as for gender related words, such as father, mother, wife and husband.

If no cue is found in a user s profile, no gender is assigned.

172 For Tweets in Dutch, we first look at the official user interface for the Twi NL data set, Among other things, it shows gender and age statistics for the users producing the tweets found for user specified searches.