Thus, Springfield's motion for summary judgment should be granted." (08/25/10) Dziekanski, 41, died in the secure arrivals area of Vancouver International Airport on Oct. 2007); see also San Jose Charter of the Hells Angels Motorcycle Club v. Officer did not order Plaintiff to get out of the car or remove her seatbelt. Accepting Plaintiff’s version of the facts, Officer knew that she was on the telephone with a 9-1-1 operator and was very frightened ("scared to death"), yet after the second time she failed to heed his command to get off of the telephone, without warning, he used the TASER ECD on her. See also First 3 ECD discharges, officer was chasing (drugged residential burglar) alone and subject was fleeing and then trying to get up. See also AELE's Electronic Control Weapons (ECW) Legal Research/Library Portal (05/11) Second Circuit Panel Allows Stun Mode to Gain Compliance of Chained Protestors, Guest article by Eric P. (08/05) Electronic Control Weapons (ECW), Concepts and Issues Paper, IACP NLEPC(01/05) Electronic Control Weapons (ECW), Concepts and Issues Paper, IACP NLEPC.(05/04) Electronic Control Weapons (ECW), Concepts and Issues Paper, IACP NLEPC.(02/98) Electronic Restraint Device: The Taser®, Concepts and Issues Paper, IACP NLEPC.(1996) Electronic Restraint Device: The Taser®, Concepts and Issues Paper, IACP NLEPC. House of Commons, Canada, 39th Parliament, 2nd Session. (09/09) Comparing safety outcomes in police use-of-force cases for law enforcement agencies that have deployed conducted energy devices and a matched comparison group that have not: A quasi-experimental evaluation.

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"While exposure to CED is not risk-free, there is no conclusive medical evidence within the state of current research that indicates a high risk of serious injury or death from the direct effects of CED exposure. (03/01/06) Wisconsin Law Enforcement Standards Board, Tactical Skills Advisory Committee, Electronic Control Device (Taser®) Update. Final Report of the Miami-Dade County Grand Jury, Spring Term A. 2005, In the Circuit Court of the Eleventh Judicial Circuit of Florida in and for the County of Miami-Dade. Police Executive Research Forum, National Institute of Justice.

Field experience with CED use indicates that exposure is safe in the vast majority of cases. E.2d 108, 2009 WL 2605742 (Ohio).) In a 4 day bench trial that started on April 21, 2008, TASER International, Inc. (02/06) Minneapolis (MN) Civilian Police Review Authority TASER Policy and Training Recommendations. “Overall, the study showed that use of CEDs is associated with a 70-percent reduction in the chances of an officer being injured compared to agencies that do not use CEDs.

(02/01/09) Electrical Injuries: Medical and Bioengineering Aspects, Second Edition, Edited by Raymond M. If necessary, it begins with an arcing voltage of 50,000 V to penetrate thick clothing; the 50,000 V is never delivered to the body itself. Cincinnati (OH) Police Department Procedure Manual: - 12.025 Authorized Weapons (includes TASER X26 - only by naming it) - 12.110 Handling Suspected Mentally Ill Individuals and Potential Suicides - 12.515 Nonviolent Demonstration Arrest: Mass Arrest Procedure (04/10/07) - 12.545 Use of Force (includes TASER X26, pages 4-5) Colorado Springs (CO) Police Department General Orders: - (12/09/05) Mentally Ill Persons - General Order 540. (03/09/07) Use of Force - Equipment and Proficiency, General Order 1.4, Olympia (WA) Police Department.

A TASER CEW is a hand-held device that delivers a 400-volt pulse with a duration tuned to control the skeletal muscles without affecting the heart at a distance of up to 6.5 meters over tiny wires. City of Seattle, Bringham Young University Law Review 2011, 2011 B. (04-05) Directive: D 05-016 - Department Policy Governing Less Lethal Options: The Taser and the Patrol Less Lethal Shotgun with Beanbag Rounds, Seattle (WA) Police Department.

(03/26/09) TASER® Electronic Control Devices: Physiology, Pathology, and Law, by Mark W. Ho (Editor), (Table of Contents) TASER® Conducted Electrical Weapons are rapidly replacing the club for law-enforcement control of violent subjects within many countries around the globe. (2011) Walker, Joseph G., Tase Me One More Time: An Analysis of the Ninth Circuit's Interpretation of the Fourth Amendment, Qualified Immunity, and TASERs in Brooks v. (07/15/05) Electronic Control Weapons General Order, Orange County (FL) Sheriff's Office.

The only way to determine whether the ECDs are responsible for deaths is to separate evidence from conjecture and analyze the facts of each case. Sether was voluntarily tased during training, and had himself experienced neuromuscular disruption. Officer was also concerned about getting Plaintiff away from the glasses to prevent her from destroying evidence or using them as a weapon. Use of Force Policy, Public Safety Office Portland State University.This book will be an excellent resource for law enforcement professionals, attorneys, investigators, and criminal justice personnel. A.10 (Utah) November 3, 2010) - Officer's use of ECD on woman was objectively unreasonable, and therefore, officer was not entitled to qualified immunity in her § 1983 action alleging use of excessive force in violation of the Fourth Amendment, where officer had responded to a non-emergency request for help from woman's husband in finding her after a domestic dispute, officer was investigating a non-injurious assault, woman was heading towards her door when officer used ECD on her in probe mode, woman did not act aggressively towards officer or threaten him, she did not have any weapon, officer did not give her any warning, there was only a single bystander who was in his driveway next door, and woman was not fleeing or resisting arrest. Cavanaugh, whose feet were on the front steps of her home, went rigid, spun around, and struck her head on the concrete steps. He was trained that use of the [ECD] created the risk of secondary injuries to the subject caused by the subject's inability to catch himself or herself during falling. Officer asserts that he warned Plaintiff before using ECD on her (in drive-stun to her arm for 2-3 seconds), but asserts that even if, as Plaintiff asserts, he did not warn her, he is entitled to qualified immunity. (11/30/04) TASER Use and Deployment Policy, Vallejo (CA) Police Department.He was trained that this risk increased when the subject was in an elevated position off the ground. Here, viewing the facts in the light most favorable to Plaintiff, Plaintiff gave no indication of violence and made no attempt to flee; Officer did not warn her that he would use the ECD or attempt to use any other type of force; and Officer was one of 4 officers on the scene and Plaintiff’s husband was already safely in the squad car. (04/16/07) Civil Liability for Use of Tasers, stunguns, and other electronic control devices Part III: Use Against Detainees and Disabled or Disturbed Persons. (01/05) IACP Model ECW Policy: (08/04) Electronic Control Weapons, Model Policy Draft, IACP National Law Enforcement Policy Center.D., NIJ Journal, National Institute of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, U. There was general consensus that officers were using TASER [ECD] as the first option. Plaintiffs therefore have not raised a genuine issue of material fact as to causation, and the Court will grant Defendant [TASER International’s] motion for summary judgment." The Court also ruled to exclude or limit Plaintiff's principle causation experts. Note, that in (OH) Mc Cullaugh 5 sheriff’s deputies have been criminally charged with various crimes, including one deputy on a murder charge. The Medical Examiner failed to present any evidence on the use and effect of TASER Devices.” “Even though the Medical Examiner's conclusions are entitled to much weight, and assuming a nonbinding presumption in favor of the Medical Examiner, the Plaintiffs have proven their claims for changing the reports of autopsy and death certificates on the three individuals by more than a preponderance of the evidence. We attribute much of this decrease to the department-wide deployment of the Taser.This was, perhaps, borne out of growing confidence in the system over time and a reduced likelihood of injury to both fficers and subjects (actual and perceived) - as well as the accompanying potential to reduce the likelihood of complaint and post- incident investigation. The Court found in part that an expert lacks any objective medical source linking the eyewitness testimony and his opinions as to what caused Lomax’s death. Here are some of the highlights from the Court’s Order: “There is simply no medical, scientific, or electrical evidence to support the conclusion that the TASER X26 had anything to do with the death of Dennis S. The multiple number of experts offered by the Plaintiffs in the area of sudden and unexpected death while law enforcement attempted to obtain custody, provided overwhelming credible medical and scientific evidence to support their positions.” “The experts provided evidence that Dennis S. Order Granting Defendant City of Fresno's Motion for Summary Judgment, See attached 41 page ORDER. Officer Herring’s the 1st, 2nd and 3rd use of the TASER device were not excessive force 2. Our review of use of force reporting and investigative files showed that the Taser replaced other types of force in the majority of incidents.Study Framework: The study is directed by a steering group with representation from NIJ, the College of American Pathologists, the Centers for Disease Control, and the National Association of Medical Examiners. (04/07) Taser Devices and Other Electro-shock Weapons, (MRSC) Municipal Research and Services Center of Washington. The argument that is made by law enforcement is that most if not all of the subjects who died when shocked by a CED would have died if the officers had controlled and arrested them in a more traditional hands-on fight.