In 1130, the Jews were fined 2,000 pounds on the charge that a Jew had killed a sick man.

The first record of Jews in Oxford is from 1141 when they were caught in the political infighting of two sides warring for the throne.

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Edmunds (1181), Bristol (before 1183) and Winchester (1192). The Jews were taxed at a much higher rate than the rest of England to finance this Crusade.

Even though Jews comprised less that 0.25% of the English population, they provided 8% of the total income of the royal treasury.

Twenty-four hours later, Richard I found out about the riots and ordered that the Jews be protected.

As soon as Richard I left to join the Crusade in 1190, riots began again throughout England.

Serving as special representatives of the king, these Jews worked as moneylenders and coin dealers.

Over the course of a generation, Jews established communities in London, York, Bristol, Canterbury and other major cities.There were individual Jews living in England in Roman and Anglo-Saxon times (80-1066 A. When William the Conqueror arrived in England in 1066, he encouraged Jewish merchants and artisans from northern France to move to England.The Jews came mostly from France with some from Germany, Italy and Spain, seeking prosperity and a haven from anti-Semitism.During the Middle Ages, usury, or lending money for interest, was considered a sin by the Catholic Church.Therefore, Christians were forbidden to work as moneylenders and Jews were called to that occupation and were able to set high interest rates.In March 1190, a mix of Crusaders, barons indebted to the Jews, those envious of Jewish wealth and clergymen conspired to kill the Jews of York.