With the older and more resistant rocks of the Precambrian peneplain, these form a low, picturesque coastline of sandy bays and rocky promontories.The drainage system is dominated by the Volta River basin, which includes Lake Volta.

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Leaching is more pronounced in the wet south, while the formation of laterite is more widespread in the drier north.

In general, most soils are formed in place from parent rock material that has been subjected to prolonged erosion and consequently has limited fertility. They are subdivided into relatively fertile and less-acidic ochrosols (red, brown, and yellow-brown, relatively well-drained soils) in areas of moderate precipitation and into more-acidic and less-fertile oxisols in the extreme southwest, where annual precipitation exceeds 65 inches (1,650 mm).

The southwestern, northwestern, and extreme northern parts of the country consist of a dissected peneplain (a land surface worn down by erosion to a nearly flat plain, later uplifted and again cut by erosion into hills and valleys or into flat uplands separated by valleys); it is made of Precambrian rocks (about 540 million to 4 billion years old).

Most of the remainder of the country consists of Paleozoic deposits (about 250 to 540 million years old), which are thought to rest on older rocks.

The Paleozoic sediments are composed mostly of beds of shales (laminated sediments consisting mostly of particles of clay) and sandstones in which strata of limestone occur in places.

They occupy a large area called the Lake Volta, an artificial lake that extends far into the central part of the country behind the Akosombo Dam and covers about 3,275 square miles (8,500 square km).

Nkrumah quickly laid the groundwork for fiscal independence within the new country as well, embarking on many economic development projects.

Unfortunately, decades of corruption, mismanagement, and military rule stymied growth and achievement.

Ochrosols occur over considerable areas in the coastal and northern savanna zones.