This study - unlike others - found no effect of age of circumcision on HIV acquistion, even if the circumcision took place after sexual activity began and after HIV was prevalent.

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It is not sufficient to rely on the nail alone to make Nail Soup." In the morning he went on his way, refreshed after a night in a comfortable bed, minus the nail, with some gold coins in his pocket and the thanks of the family ringing in his ears for the wonderful nail that made such delicious Nail Soup.

So it will be when mass circumcision has been "rolled out" and if there is any dent at all in HIV transmission.

That one study, confined to Christians in Kenya, compared men belonging to churches that encouraged circumcision with those that discouraged it.

It used physical examination to determine circumcision status, and confined itself to churches that had similar views on polygamy and widow inheritance (of their late husbands' brothers as second husbands).

An unexplored area is what else the churches advocated or required beside circumcision.

Since the church circumcisions occur on the eighth day after birth, it seems likely they model themselves on Judaism: what other Jewish practices do they advocate, and what effect could those have on HIV acquisition?

So circumcising insertive men could readily increase HIV transmission to their partners.

Yet already this study is being touted as a reason for gay men to get circumcised.] Studies that claim to find a correlation between intactness and HIV transmission are not uncommonly misreported in a way that plays up the "protective effect".

It is hard to escape the conclusion that this line was written before the study began.

National Prevention Information Network September 17, 2008 Findings reported at the Australasian Sexual Health Conference 2008 shed new light on male circumcisions role in preventing HIV infection.

is usually pitched directly to the media, circumventing the normal process of scientific review and debate. The result is that a disproportionate share of the science seen by the public is flawed. circumcision must be combined with other techniques of HIV prevention, such as safe sex and voluntary testing.