We view the planets as ''recent captives," or as a newly adopted family of the Sun, arriving with pre-existent spin rates, craters, etc.The flaws of the Swedenborg-Kant nebular hypothesis are what we must ultimately confront; our thesis on this subject, "The Catastrophic Origin of the Solar System," was published in Aeon in 1989.This has several implications, one of which is that Mars, in sequential flybys, tortured the Earth's Eastern and Western Hemispheres alternately.

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Geographically, the primary zone of action (and damage) was hemispheric, that is, the side of the Earth facing Mars, although other secondary effects were global in scope. The Moon was always at or near full, and it was away from the path of Mars.

Our model of the Mars-Earth Wars extends geographical techniques to astronomical scenes, well beyond the Earth's surface, including to the orbit and to the surface of Mars. (Inside flybys by an outer planet, in celestial mechanics, result in orbit warps for both planets that tend to be mutually self perpetuating .) 3. Mars approached and passed the Earth-Moon system at a velocity of 28,000 mph.

The orbit of Mars contracted from a 720-day orbit to the modern 687 day orbit. To sum up, it is almost inevitable to admit that the physiographic evidence regarding features on the Earth's surface is such that it must be assumed that some parts of the Earth's crust have been subject to compression (crustal shortening), others have been subject to tensions (mid ocean rifts) and yet others to shearing (fracture zones) Most theories have been proposed for the purpose of explaining only one of these features and are therefore inadequate with regard to the others. Is one to understand that minimal progress has been made over the last 150 years in arriving at an understanding of why mountain systems have been upthrust?

A theory of orogenesis to be acceptable must be flexible enough to allow for compression tension and shear of sufficient magnitude to be produced in the Earth's crust. To be certain we have caught Hartshorne's appraisal, we quote him again: To the extent that the geomorphologist is primarily concerned to use landforms as the means of studying geologic processes or determining stages in geologic history, his explanatory description, as Kesseli notes, is often "an explanation lacking a description.

They could alter the orbit crossing place and the flyby distance by an estimated 50,000 to 60,000 miles. (This "slot" in space puts the Earth's orbit in a 12:1 orbit timing resonance with Jupiter and a 30:1 resonance with Saturn, also 85:1 with Uranus. The closest point in a planet's orbit to the Sun is its "perihelion'' (Greek, peri = near, helios = Sun).

This explains the 360 day (not 365 day) ancient year and ancient calendar; 360 day calendars were the norm in ancient societies. Mars had a perihelion of 66 million miles in our model, and thus its perihelion was well inside Venus' orbit space.8. Since the orbits of Mars and the Earth are, and were, coplanar, there were two orbit intersection locations, not one. called March 21 their ''tubulustrium" (day of trouble), and they called October 24 their "armilustrium" (day of alarms). The orbit of Mars required 720 days, while one orbit of the Earth required 360 days in the Catastrophic Era.

" In the parlance of geology, the dogma of gradualism is called "Uniformitarianism.

" This eight syllable word embraces the idea of millions of years for accomplishing anything involving crustal deformation.

One orbit enossroads was October 24 and the other was March 21, the historic Passover of Judaism. The early Hebrews called October 24 "The Day of the Lord,'' very much dreaded, like their Passover. In addition, the Moon's orbit at that time was 30 days, not the modern 29.54 days. Close Mars flybys alternated between the ascending intersection (October 24) and the descending (March 20-21) crossroads.

This means the Moon, too, was in orbital resonance with Mars at 24:1. Close flybys rocked back and forth in 108-year cycles, like a rocking chair.

When working together they can create a crustal tide of only 4.